The carbon still

Some people like to make home brew, and some like it a bit more potent. So…

Another of graphene’s amazing properties is that it lets water through, but not alcohol. So, when the home brew is ready, you could put it into a graphene still.

A graphene still might simply contain two parts separated by a graphene membrane. You pour in your beer and just wait a while until enough water has migrated down through the membrane, leaving the beer with higher alcohol content, albeit not quite so much beer. By adjusting the position of the graphene membrane, you can adjust the alcohol content.

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Carbon fur: biokleptic warmth and protection

Some women would rather die than kill an animal to steal its fur, but we can steal ideas from nature without harming anyone or anything. That’s normally called biomimetics but really it should be called bio-kleptics. People call it biomimetics because they want to pretend it isn’t stealing but ‘only copying’, as if nature shouldn’t be entitled to any intellectual property protection. Then again, imitation is a form of flattery, and we are ourselves part of nature, so maybe we have inheritance-based rights to copy whatever we see. So let’s not make a big deal of it.

Fur is a great idea. Millions of long fine strands of material are extruded from the base to make a dense but very soft material that traps air to keep the animal warm, give some protection from sun and scratches by thorns, and make it harder to eat. If it’s dense enough, or coated with oil, also preventing water from getting through. If it looks right, it also makes the animal cute to humans, so they’re less likely to murder it and may even sponsor it as a pet, with free accommodation, medicare and food.

So… carbon fur. Well, obviously it would be based either on nanotubes, or graphene strands, or some combo. Both can make long hollow fibres (aha! there’s their duvet and pillows sorted for a future blog) so are perfect to make fur. Conventional synthetic fur coat manufacturers have already got perfectly good techniques for making fur, so if I was lazy, I could just use them. But the Carbon Trio need something special. And they really are fond of nature, so we need some technique that allows the carbon skin to self organise into follicles and extrude fur filaments from there. And it just so happens, I made one earlier.

Self-organisation is the sound basis of a huge multitude of natural phenomena. Even human life starts as a single cell, and after some divisions the cells have to start differentiating and self-organising into structures that become limbs or organs or whatever. When I was asked to study DNA as a computing basis in 1992, I got sidetracked when I was reading up on cell differentiation and realised that the same principle could be used to self organise electronic systems such as exchanges, chips, circuits and even processors. A few years later, another BT engineer, whose name I have sadly forgotten, adapted similar self-organisation principles involved in hair growth on a fruit fly’s abdomen to make a mechanism for self organising mobile phone networks. Both of us independently used nature’s idea of hormone gradients. It works well, both in nature and in engineering. Given nature’s other idea of membranes, and linking the two,very complex systems can be self organised. So that’s the basis of how carbon filaments in carbon fur arrange themselves so that they’re nicely spread out without having to manually place every single one. Each follicle would be a tiny graphene strand printer/extruder, and the follicles would self-organise using virtual hormone gradients and membranes. In practice these virtual hormone gradients can be magnetic or electric fields, chemical gradients, signal strengths or any other physical property that can be varied. Membranes can be digitally demarked by naming or use physical  interference effects or barriers.

So what about extrusion? Well, that’s easy enough too, easy enough when you only have to do something on paper anyway. Here:

printing graphene

Imagine a 3D printer with a head that is a packed array of carbon-atom-emitting tubes. It could be made with a nice hexagonal layout as in the picture above, simply by aligning many layers of graphene on top of each other. 6 carbon atoms in a hexagon just make room for a 7th to come through the centre. If that doesn’t work because it is too tight a fit, carbon nanotubes can be made to size to do the job. I’ve only drawn a small section of the head for simplicity. This diagram only shows the print face, not the 3D structure.

In the diagram above, each vertex is a carbon atom. (The colours are only to clarify the diagram, the vertices that are shared are just one atom, not two). If carbon atoms are forced through the centres of the hexagons in the ‘bit pattern’ shown on the right, driven by a high frequency and perfectly phased signal, graphene would come out of the printer. Bear with me here.

I haven’t got the diagram wrong. The trouble at first glance is that the distances between the centres obviously isn’t the same as the length of each side of the hexagon, so the hexagonal pattern of atoms streaming out won’t be the same dimension as the graphene used to make the print head. That isn’t a problem here.

With this technique, it would not be able to make large continuous sheets of graphene, but by phasing the emissions of each pipe, what it could do is to produce thin strands of graphene, and a range of widths of strand would be feasible. The phasing is all-important, as it would drive the production of the strand around the print head as it emerges.The carbon atoms would converge and bond as they emerge if the ionisation and phasing is correct. Phasing would need waves of EM field to pass through the graphene, originating from transmitters on the circumference. Ionisation of the carbon atoms would be before they enter the tubes, and although they would be sucked into the tubes in a continuous stream, their bit pattern emerges as they are spread out selectively by the fields acting on them. As I said, phasing is all important.

Each print head would produce one strand of graphene. The strand would be very fine. With clusters of these print heads extruding strands of graphene, you would get graphene fur. Rubbish if you want sheet, but great if you want fur. So there we are. Just as Post-it glue was accidentally found while trying to design something else, poor design for a graphene sheet printer turns out to be just what we need to make carbon fur. Spacing the print heads to the required pattern, any density of carbon fur is possible from sparse to dense.

The fur filaments would emerge from the graphene layers that make up the print heads, and these would not be continuous, but attached to an under-layer in patches so that they can stay in place. Using a different attachment pattern for each layer of print head allows great strength and maintains alignment. This under-layer provides the solid foundation and material strength. It could use combinations of graphene, nanotubes and mostly carbon fibre, together with the fur itself.

OK, it looks OK in theory, even if I haven’t bothered explaining every detail, but this would be difficult to do, so puts this kind of technology a bit further in the future than a lot of other carbon products.

Carbon fur also makes good protection and insulation.

Biomimetic fabrics and carbon fur will feature in some later blogs too. And the printer here is capable of very fine print, and very intricate 3D printing, so it will feature too, eventually.

 

 

Making any water supply safe: Graphene drinking straws

Sometimes there are emergencies such as natural disasters. These are often followed by the need for refugee camps, and getting access to clean water can sometimes become a problem. Disease often becomes widespread thanks to polluted supplies. Graphene can come to the rescue, again.

Graphene has many remarkable properties, but one is that water passes through a graphene coating onto an absorbent surface as if it wasn’t there. Given the large number of people in the world without access to clean water, wouldn’t it be nice if we could make this:

Graphene drinking straw

The absorbent material provides a smooth surface onto which to apply the graphene coating. The graphene coating filters out everything except the clean drinking water. The sponge then provides a reservoir from which to suck safe drinking water. When we get to the point that graphene can be produced cheaply and easily, this could save many lives in developing countries, in disaster zones, and even be useful to save carried weight for hikers, sailors and the military.

Video make-up

My fictional superheroine Carbon Girl wears smart makeup, but although she is fictional, it is entirely feasible and and this is how it might work. A variation of this is that isn’t so carbon-based is on my other blog: https://timeguide.wordpress.com/2015/11/11/the-future-of-make-up/

Butterfly wings can be very pretty with complex iridescent colours. But they use diffraction to make colours rather than dyes. Fortunately, graphene flakes will work just as well as scales on a butterfly. And copying nature makes Carbon Girl happy.

Carbon-based smart make-up could use a suspension of graphene flakes, carbon foam and strands of nanotube.

Every month, a woman would have active skin printed over her skin, which would be painless and take 10 minutes or maybe half an hour. This is a super-thin graphene layer that makes an intricately patterned electrical circuit covering her whole skin, though self-organisation and rapid reconfiguration mean that minor errors or damage from everyday wear only slowly and gradually degrade its functioning. This circuit can use differences in skin temperature to generate electricity for regeneration pulses a few times every hour, on ordinary women, and can also be charged when they uses electric toothbrushes or mobiles, or are near a wireless LAN.

The pulses in this electronics layer create a magnetic field, and that causes eddy currents in the graphene flakes, which then produce their own magnetic field. The interaction of these fields allows the particles in the make-up to be manipulated into their required orientation, and over a patch of skin, the custom orientation of millions of particles changes the colour of the make-up.

None of the electronics layer would be visible to the naked eye, circuitry being typically just a few microns across and an atom thick. Only the skin and make-up would be visible.

A woman would just smear smart make-up all over her face, snap her fingers, and the make-up immediately takes on her chosen appearance. Her active skin immediately recharges and since the flakes can reorientate many times every second, she has video make-up.

Her active skin knows where she is, who she is with, and what time it is, so her appearance automatically changes as she goes through the day, video here, a static appearance there. But she can over-rule it any time using thought recognition.

The make-up gives her the appearance she wants, but it also is useful to enable disguises and camouflage. But mainly, with a 30 minute session once a month for the active skin renewal, and then just a few seconds a day to put the make-up on, it saves her lots of time. So she can do even more to save the world. Every little helps.

Components of perfume can also be selectively vaporized according to the context of her situation, using printed active skin heating elements. Pheromones help her to influence others too.

The appearance of her make-up could be controlled by her electronic jewelry, or on voice or thought command, but it can also tap directly into her emotional state when she isn’t actively controlling it. When she wants to show her emotions, her make-up amplifies her expressions. When she wants to hide them, it works well to give the opposite impression. When she is distracted while talking to someone, her make-up can run on autopilot to mimic attention.

High altitude balloons using graphene foam

Graphene foam can be made up of tiny spheres of graphene that contain a vacuum. The graphene spheres are large enough that the average density of the graphene and vacuum is less than helium, so I suggested it as a helium substitute. Here is my original article:

http://timeguide.wordpress.com/2013/01/05/could-graphene-foam-be-a-future-helium-substitute/

It wasn’t long after I wrote it that a Chinese group achieved it, and they subsequently discovered it makes an ideal platform for cultivating stem cells, something that hadn’t even crossed my mind. But that’s engineers for you. Someone invents one idea and someone else runs with it and makes something far better. Anyway, graphene foams already exist today that are 6 times lighter than air.

We hear a lot about high altitude balloons being used for communications, e.g. Google’s Loon project. As is the norm for Google, the idea predates their’s considerably, but never mind, at least they are developing it where others left it on the drawing board.

High altitude balloons so far use helium to achieve the low density. In stark contrast, a huge solid balloon could be made out of graphene foam, and it could be lighter than helium yet stronger than steel. Graphene foam is therefore ideal for making solid balloons for a wide range of purposes.

Way above clouds, the top surface of such a balloon would be perfect to produce solar power for use inside, and the lower side is perfect to transmit this to the ground house communications transponders or simply reflect communication signals.

It could be ideal to house a death ray too, but let’s not think about that for now.

A large, solid, strong balloon could act as an excellent base for a wide range of activities, but it could also be mobile, just like an airship. A combination of special carbon motors such as graphene electron pipes directly powered by energy stored in graphene capacitors. These would be charged with solar electricity generated by from the intense sunlight unimpeded by clouds, the movement of a carbon wire through the magnetic field, thermocouples, solar panels, or harnessing power from high altitude winds. They could even use power harvested from hurricanes and tornadoes, saving many lives and a lot of property too:

https://carbondevices.com/2013/08/11/tackling-tornados-and-hurricanes-the-extractor/

Balloons could also used to deal with forest fires, collecting and storing water directly from clouds and dropping it onto the fire. In fact, these highly positive emergency uses may ultimately be the main reason such a large object would be allowed to remain up in the sky unchallenged in spite of its potential misuses (such as acting the role of mother-ship to a fleet of smaller airships or other weapons). With no need for helium, this kind of solid balloon would be much more environmentally friendly than the traditional variety, perfect for sustainability.

 

Ultra-tall structures – from ground into space

I was 8 when Armstrong and Aldrin set foot on the moon. It was exciting. My daughter is 18 and has never witnessed anything of the same order of excitement. The human genome project was comparable in some ways but lacked the Buzz.

There is excitement about going back now. We will, and on to Mars. We can do space so much more safely now than back in the 60s.  Commercial companies are pioneering space tourism and later on will pioneer the mining bits. But the excitement recently is over the space elevator. The idea is that a cable can stretch all the way from the surface out into space, balanced by gravity, and used as a means to cart stuff back and forth instead of having to use rockets, making it easier, less expensive and less dangerous.

It will happen eventually on Earth. We need to make new materials that are strong enough. Carbon nanotube cables and other fancy materials will be needed that we can’t make long and strong enough yet. But the moon has lower gravity so it is much easier there and will likely happen earlier.

There are plenty of web articles about space elevators already so I don’t need to repeat everything here. But a space elevator is supported from above, a regular building is supported from below. How can we build one very tall from the ground?

I recently issued a report on 2045 construction that among other things also discussed spaceports up to 30km tall:

https://timeguide.wordpress.com/2015/10/21/2045-constructing-the-future/

A 30km tall spaceport on Earth could make use of atmospheric buoyancy for the lower end which of course we wouldn’t get on the moon for the spaceport coming home, but we also wouldn’t get wind on the moon to add stresses. On the moon gravity is less so the structure could be much taller. On the moon a graphene structure could form as much as the bottom 150-200km of the climb. It might offer a nice synergy. The diagram above shows some of the possible structure for the columns, biomimetically inspired by plant stems, though this is just one suggestions, and there are very many ways they could be designed.

This could be enhanced by filling columns with graphene foam:

http://timeguide.wordpress.com/2013/01/05/could-graphene-foam-be-a-future-helium-substitute/

Since I wrote that, carbon foams have been made and they are 6 times lighter than air.

So how about a 30km tall building? Using multilayered columns using rolled up or rippled graphene and nanotubes, in various patterned cross sections, it should be possible to make strong threads, ribbons and membranes, interwoven to make columns and arrange them into an extremely tall pyramid.

This could be used to make super-tall structures for science and tourism or spaceports, or a home for celebrities, well out of sight of the Paparazzi.

Think of a structure like the wood and bark of a tree, with the many tubular fine structures. Engineering can take the ideas nature gives us and optimise them using synthetic materials. Graphene and carbon nanotubes will become routine architectural materials in due course. Many mesh designs and composites will be possible, and layering these to make threads, columns, cross members with various micro-structures will enable extremely strong columns to be made. If the outer layer is coated to withstand vacuum, then it will be possible to make the columns strong enough to withstand atmospheric pressure, but with an overall density the same as the surrounding air or less. Pressure is of course less of an issue higher up, so higher parts of the columns can therefore be lighter still.

We should be able to make zero weight structures in the lower atmosphere, and still have atmospheric buoyancy supporting some of the weight as altitude increases. Once buoyancy fails, the structure will have to be supported by the structure below, limiting the final achievable height.  Optimising the structures to give just enough strength at the various heights, with optimised mesh structure and maximal use of buoyancy, will enable the tallest possible structures. Very tall structures indeed could be made.

So, think of making such a structure, with three columns in a triangular cross-section meeting at 43 degrees at the top (I recall once calculating that is the optimal angle for the strongest A frame in terms of load-bearing to weight ratio, though it ignores buoyancy effects, so ‘needs more work’.

30km tall structures would not be ideal for large scale habitation, since much of the strength in the structure would be to support the upper parts of the structure itself and whatever platform loading is needed. But for a celebrity home, small military observation base or a decent sized lab, it might be fine. The idea may be perfect for pressurised platforms at the top for scientific research, environmental monitoring, telescopes, space launches, tourism and so on. The extreme difference in temperature may have energy production uses too.

Getting the first 30km off the ground without needing any rocket fuel would greatly reduce space development costs, not to mention carbon and high altitude water emissions.

A simple addition to this would be to add balloons to the columns at various points to add extra buoyancy, but they cannot give much extra lift once the atmosphere is too thin so probably wouldn’t make much difference.

Nevertheless, the physics limits are pretty good. 30km is a reasonably achievable goal for a 2045 spaceport, but given the known strength of graphene and carbon nanotubes, a 600km tall building on Earth would be the limit, and that is higher than the Hubble telescope!

Welcome to Carbon Devices

Carbon is arguably the most useful element. New forms of carbon are occasionally discovered and invented. Some open vast fields of opportunity. Carbon Devices will contribute to the range of inventions. It will also consider possible uses and abuses and discuss the  issues arising from those.

I am well aware that some uses of new technology will be military. I am also well aware that many people prefer not to think about the nastier side of life. I therefore created a separate sister blog to discuss potential military uses. It is at http://carbonweapons.com/

Most of my futurologist day job has nothing to do with carbon. Some of my early posts related to carbon are on that too, but most are non-carbon. It is at http://timeguide.wordpress.com/

The main sponsor company for carbondevices.com is called Futurizon. It is currently registered in both Switzerland (as Futurizon GmbH) and in the UK (as Futurizon Limited). Futurizon started as a speaker agency and absorbed most of my professional activities when I married its owner. Now that Futurizon and I have fully merged, they share the website http://www.futurizon.com. Since I do all the futurology for futurizon and write all the sister blogs above, they are all basically different parts of the same brain.