Tag Archives: carbon

My first sci-fi book about Carbon Girl and Carbon Man novel is now out

Well, Carbon Girl and Carbon Man now have their first novel. It is called Space Anchor. It is available through all the usual amazon routes. I used CreateSpace print-on-demand for the paper version. The price is the lowest I was permitted.

Obviously it features a lot of carbon uses. The main character is Carbon Girl but Carbon Man gets in on the action a lot too.

Paperback version:

FrontCover.

And the e-book version. Content in both is identical. Only the cover is different.

kindle cover

It is my first sc-fi novel, and I am pleased with it. It is based to some degree on my day job futurology and a lot of it is feasible, but of course some isn’t. It is set in 2092, and of course technology has to exist before you can use it. Some will be here decades before then, such as having large quantities of cheap graphene to play with, but some of the stuff like the space elevator, space anchor, Heisenberg Resonators, some speculative forms of carbon, and certainly their 600km tall home – well, they can’t be done much before that.

A lot of the tech is biomimetic, that is, its basic principles are based on how nature does things, and then some of the techniques are improved on. So the materials are often grown,self organisation is widely used, and even the AI development route follows quite a natural path.

The novel features some AI conflict and romance, some zombies, and some early space exploration, with a nod of recognition to some of the other issues that may arise from AI and trans-human development.

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Carbon fur: biokleptic warmth and protection

Some women would rather die than kill an animal to steal its fur, but we can steal ideas from nature without harming anyone or anything. That’s normally called biomimetics but really it should be called bio-kleptics. People call it biomimetics because they want to pretend it isn’t stealing but ‘only copying’, as if nature shouldn’t be entitled to any intellectual property protection. Then again, imitation is a form of flattery, and we are ourselves part of nature, so maybe we have inheritance-based rights to copy whatever we see. So let’s not make a big deal of it.

Fur is a great idea. Millions of long fine strands of material are extruded from the base to make a dense but very soft material that traps air to keep the animal warm, give some protection from sun and scratches by thorns, and make it harder to eat. If it’s dense enough, or coated with oil, also preventing water from getting through. If it looks right, it also makes the animal cute to humans, so they’re less likely to murder it and may even sponsor it as a pet, with free accommodation, medicare and food.

So… carbon fur. Well, obviously it would be based either on nanotubes, or graphene strands, or some combo. Both can make long hollow fibres (aha! there’s their duvet and pillows sorted for a future blog) so are perfect to make fur. Conventional synthetic fur coat manufacturers have already got perfectly good techniques for making fur, so if I was lazy, I could just use them. But the Carbon Trio need something special. And they really are fond of nature, so we need some technique that allows the carbon skin to self organise into follicles and extrude fur filaments from there. And it just so happens, I made one earlier.

Self-organisation is the sound basis of a huge multitude of natural phenomena. Even human life starts as a single cell, and after some divisions the cells have to start differentiating and self-organising into structures that become limbs or organs or whatever. When I was asked to study DNA as a computing basis in 1992, I got sidetracked when I was reading up on cell differentiation and realised that the same principle could be used to self organise electronic systems such as exchanges, chips, circuits and even processors. A few years later, another BT engineer, whose name I have sadly forgotten, adapted similar self-organisation principles involved in hair growth on a fruit fly’s abdomen to make a mechanism for self organising mobile phone networks. Both of us independently used nature’s idea of hormone gradients. It works well, both in nature and in engineering. Given nature’s other idea of membranes, and linking the two,very complex systems can be self organised. So that’s the basis of how carbon filaments in carbon fur arrange themselves so that they’re nicely spread out without having to manually place every single one. Each follicle would be a tiny graphene strand printer/extruder, and the follicles would self-organise using virtual hormone gradients and membranes. In practice these virtual hormone gradients can be magnetic or electric fields, chemical gradients, signal strengths or any other physical property that can be varied. Membranes can be digitally demarked by naming or use physical  interference effects or barriers.

So what about extrusion? Well, that’s easy enough too, easy enough when you only have to do something on paper anyway. Here:

printing graphene

Imagine a 3D printer with a head that is a packed array of carbon-atom-emitting tubes. It could be made with a nice hexagonal layout as in the picture above, simply by aligning many layers of graphene on top of each other. 6 carbon atoms in a hexagon just make room for a 7th to come through the centre. If that doesn’t work because it is too tight a fit, carbon nanotubes can be made to size to do the job. I’ve only drawn a small section of the head for simplicity. This diagram only shows the print face, not the 3D structure.

In the diagram above, each vertex is a carbon atom. (The colours are only to clarify the diagram, the vertices that are shared are just one atom, not two). If carbon atoms are forced through the centres of the hexagons in the ‘bit pattern’ shown on the right, driven by a high frequency and perfectly phased signal, graphene would come out of the printer. Bear with me here.

I haven’t got the diagram wrong. The trouble at first glance is that the distances between the centres obviously isn’t the same as the length of each side of the hexagon, so the hexagonal pattern of atoms streaming out won’t be the same dimension as the graphene used to make the print head. That isn’t a problem here.

With this technique, it would not be able to make large continuous sheets of graphene, but by phasing the emissions of each pipe, what it could do is to produce thin strands of graphene, and a range of widths of strand would be feasible. The phasing is all-important, as it would drive the production of the strand around the print head as it emerges.The carbon atoms would converge and bond as they emerge if the ionisation and phasing is correct. Phasing would need waves of EM field to pass through the graphene, originating from transmitters on the circumference. Ionisation of the carbon atoms would be before they enter the tubes, and although they would be sucked into the tubes in a continuous stream, their bit pattern emerges as they are spread out selectively by the fields acting on them. As I said, phasing is all important.

Each print head would produce one strand of graphene. The strand would be very fine. With clusters of these print heads extruding strands of graphene, you would get graphene fur. Rubbish if you want sheet, but great if you want fur. So there we are. Just as Post-it glue was accidentally found while trying to design something else, poor design for a graphene sheet printer turns out to be just what we need to make carbon fur. Spacing the print heads to the required pattern, any density of carbon fur is possible from sparse to dense.

The fur filaments would emerge from the graphene layers that make up the print heads, and these would not be continuous, but attached to an under-layer in patches so that they can stay in place. Using a different attachment pattern for each layer of print head allows great strength and maintains alignment. This under-layer provides the solid foundation and material strength. It could use combinations of graphene, nanotubes and mostly carbon fibre, together with the fur itself.

OK, it looks OK in theory, even if I haven’t bothered explaining every detail, but this would be difficult to do, so puts this kind of technology a bit further in the future than a lot of other carbon products.

Carbon fur also makes good protection and insulation.

Biomimetic fabrics and carbon fur will feature in some later blogs too. And the printer here is capable of very fine print, and very intricate 3D printing, so it will feature too, eventually.

 

 

Ultra-tall structures – from ground into space

I was 8 when Armstrong and Aldrin set foot on the moon. It was exciting. My daughter is 18 and has never witnessed anything of the same order of excitement. The human genome project was comparable in some ways but lacked the Buzz.

There is excitement about going back now. We will, and on to Mars. We can do space so much more safely now than back in the 60s.  Commercial companies are pioneering space tourism and later on will pioneer the mining bits. But the excitement recently is over the space elevator. The idea is that a cable can stretch all the way from the surface out into space, balanced by gravity, and used as a means to cart stuff back and forth instead of having to use rockets, making it easier, less expensive and less dangerous.

It will happen eventually on Earth. We need to make new materials that are strong enough. Carbon nanotube cables and other fancy materials will be needed that we can’t make long and strong enough yet. But the moon has lower gravity so it is much easier there and will likely happen earlier.

There are plenty of web articles about space elevators already so I don’t need to repeat everything here. But a space elevator is supported from above, a regular building is supported from below. How can we build one very tall from the ground?

I recently issued a report on 2045 construction that among other things also discussed spaceports up to 30km tall:

https://timeguide.wordpress.com/2015/10/21/2045-constructing-the-future/

A 30km tall spaceport on Earth could make use of atmospheric buoyancy for the lower end which of course we wouldn’t get on the moon for the spaceport coming home, but we also wouldn’t get wind on the moon to add stresses. On the moon gravity is less so the structure could be much taller. On the moon a graphene structure could form as much as the bottom 150-200km of the climb. It might offer a nice synergy. The diagram above shows some of the possible structure for the columns, biomimetically inspired by plant stems, though this is just one suggestions, and there are very many ways they could be designed.

This could be enhanced by filling columns with graphene foam:

http://timeguide.wordpress.com/2013/01/05/could-graphene-foam-be-a-future-helium-substitute/

Since I wrote that, carbon foams have been made and they are 6 times lighter than air.

So how about a 30km tall building? Using multilayered columns using rolled up or rippled graphene and nanotubes, in various patterned cross sections, it should be possible to make strong threads, ribbons and membranes, interwoven to make columns and arrange them into an extremely tall pyramid.

This could be used to make super-tall structures for science and tourism or spaceports, or a home for celebrities, well out of sight of the Paparazzi.

Think of a structure like the wood and bark of a tree, with the many tubular fine structures. Engineering can take the ideas nature gives us and optimise them using synthetic materials. Graphene and carbon nanotubes will become routine architectural materials in due course. Many mesh designs and composites will be possible, and layering these to make threads, columns, cross members with various micro-structures will enable extremely strong columns to be made. If the outer layer is coated to withstand vacuum, then it will be possible to make the columns strong enough to withstand atmospheric pressure, but with an overall density the same as the surrounding air or less. Pressure is of course less of an issue higher up, so higher parts of the columns can therefore be lighter still.

We should be able to make zero weight structures in the lower atmosphere, and still have atmospheric buoyancy supporting some of the weight as altitude increases. Once buoyancy fails, the structure will have to be supported by the structure below, limiting the final achievable height.  Optimising the structures to give just enough strength at the various heights, with optimised mesh structure and maximal use of buoyancy, will enable the tallest possible structures. Very tall structures indeed could be made.

So, think of making such a structure, with three columns in a triangular cross-section meeting at 43 degrees at the top (I recall once calculating that is the optimal angle for the strongest A frame in terms of load-bearing to weight ratio, though it ignores buoyancy effects, so ‘needs more work’.

30km tall structures would not be ideal for large scale habitation, since much of the strength in the structure would be to support the upper parts of the structure itself and whatever platform loading is needed. But for a celebrity home, small military observation base or a decent sized lab, it might be fine. The idea may be perfect for pressurised platforms at the top for scientific research, environmental monitoring, telescopes, space launches, tourism and so on. The extreme difference in temperature may have energy production uses too.

Getting the first 30km off the ground without needing any rocket fuel would greatly reduce space development costs, not to mention carbon and high altitude water emissions.

A simple addition to this would be to add balloons to the columns at various points to add extra buoyancy, but they cannot give much extra lift once the atmosphere is too thin so probably wouldn’t make much difference.

Nevertheless, the physics limits are pretty good. 30km is a reasonably achievable goal for a 2045 spaceport, but given the known strength of graphene and carbon nanotubes, a 600km tall building on Earth would be the limit, and that is higher than the Hubble telescope!